Returning from Sakhalin to Japan in the Cold War:
Remaining Japanese and Koreans in “the Second Repatriation from Karafuto” after Soviet–Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956
The Annual Review of Migration Studies, (20), 2014, pp.3-15.
NAKAYAMA Taisho

A large number of Japanese civilians and military personnel were repatriated from throughout East Asia to Japan under the control of the Allied Forces after the collapse of the Japanese Empire. However, it is said that about 1,400 Japanese and 23,000 Koreans remained in Southern Sakhalin (Karafuto). The iron curtain prevented them from returning to their homelands.

Remaining Japanese obtained opportunities to return to Japan at the end of 1950s because Japan had established diplomatic relationships with USSR in 1956. The Japanese government permitted these Japanese to return with their Korean husbands and children. As a result, over 2,000 Japanese and Koreans returned to Japan.

What kinds of remaining Japanese and Koreans returned to Japan in the Cold War era? How did the Government of Japan accept Japanese who had lived in USSR for over ten years? What happened to the Koreans whose status had changed to ‘non-Japanese’ under Japanese domestic law? Why did the policy for them change after 1960s?

These points have yet to be clarified. This paper aims to discuss these questions by analyzing materials from the diplomatic archive of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the official record of the proceedings of the Diet of Japan.

(Update: 2020.03.10)